The metallurgical engineering design discipline is a discipline that integrates and implements metallurgical engineering technology basic science, technical science and engineering scientific research results. The main business areas of metallurgical engineering design include: supply of special equipment and technology for metal smelting, rolling and casting for the steel and non-ferrous metal processing industries, including mining, sintering, coking, smelting and pressure processing, such as in mining equipment. Excavators, large wheel loaders, downhole scrapers, crushing and screening equipment and magnetic separation equipment, blast furnaces, converters and electric furnaces in smelting equipment, large-scale thin-plate hot and cold continuous rolling equipment in rolling equipment, large-scale Rolling plate with finishing line equipment, as well as large-scale wide and thick slab continuous casting equipment.
The status quo and development trend of foreign engineering development
Foreign metallurgical engineering companies generally have core design technology and core manufacturing technology capabilities, and have product functional design capabilities. Although they have their own strengths in the steel industry, they all have the following main technical features:
1) It can meet the first requirements of steel enterprises for equipment reliability and stability.
2) Many techniques and processes are cured on the equipment they sell, such as control systems, roll systems and roll types.
3) Master the operation technology, and generally require the introduction of technology and products at the same time.
4) Design human resources. First, the overall quality of personnel is high, and the actual experience is rich. Second, the personnel structure is reasonable, and the echelon is formed in the age. Third, the personnel composition has international characteristics and is not limited to a certain country. The fourth is work dedication, strong sense of responsibility, and generally has a good professional ethics; the fifth is to focus on innovation, technological innovation awareness, ability; sixth, strong market awareness, formed the purpose of technology development is to meet the needs of users design philosophy.
5) Design hardware resources. First, it has a complete computer hardware platform; second, it has complete product testing and trial production conditions; third, it has complete product testing methods; fourth, it has complete product pilot test conditions; and fifth, it has complete industrial test conditions for products; Sixth, it has a complete enterprise R&D center.
6) Design software resources. First, it has a complete computer-aided design work platform; second, it has a complete CAD/CAM/CAE computer software, and needs to be continuously upgraded; third, it has a complete scientific and technological information retrieval means; fourth, the design-related technical data system is complete.
7) Design management resources. First, it has a clear technology development strategy; second, it has a complete technology management system; third, it has a clear intellectual property development strategy.
8) Design environmental resources. First, the relevant administrative departments and industry associations of foreign governments have created a good soft environment for the development of engineering companies. Second, the relevant government departments of foreign governments have focused on using market methods to encourage investment in technological development; third, research and development by foreign universities, research institutions and enterprises. There are divisions of labor in each aspect, relatively clear, honesty and cooperation.
9) Theoretical support for design resources. First, foreign universities have in-depth research on the theory of design resources, which strongly supports the development of enterprise technology in theory; second, the combination of theoretical research and practical application of foreign design resources is better, mutual promotion, and promote the continuous development of enterprises.
In order to improve the competitiveness in the Chinese market, in recent years, world-renowned metallurgical engineering and technology companies and equipment manufacturers have begun to expand their strategies in China. For example, the German SMS-Dmag AG established representatives in Beijing and Shanghai from 1983 to 1984. It has established joint ventures and wholly-owned companies in Wuhan, Shanghai and Beijing. Danieli established subsidiaries Danieli Metallurgical Equipment (Beijing) Co., Ltd. and Changshu Danieli Metallurgical Equipment Co., Ltd. in China in 2004 and 2007.
Foreign metallurgical engineering design has a development trend of domestic subcontracting and localized production.
Analysis of the status quo of domestic metallurgical engineering design
Since the "10th Five-Year Plan", the steady and rapid development of the national economy has promoted the development of the heavy machinery industry and the localization of large-scale metallurgical equipment. Under the overall stable and rapid development of the national economy, China's raw material industry, energy, transportation and infrastructure, etc. It also experienced rapid growth, especially steel production increased from 100 million tons before the 10th Five-Year Plan to 420 million tons in 2006, which greatly drove the development of heavy machinery and the localization of metallurgical equipment.
Due to the excessive dependence on the introduction of foreign technical equipment for a long time, although the domestic steel industry has entered the stage of relying on technological progress to enhance its core competitiveness, it has not greatly improved the independent innovation capability of domestic metallurgical technology. China's major metallurgical equipment relied on Soviet aid in the 1950s, imported foreign second-hand equipment in the 1980s, and introduced more advanced foreign production lines in the 1990s. Because it did not pay attention to the digestion and absorption of technology, it has been difficult to form an autonomy. Innovation capacity. In 2005, a statistics from the China Iron and Steel Association showed that in the first four years of the “10th Five-Year Plan”, China’s key large and medium-sized iron and steel enterprises spent a total of 17.507 billion yuan to introduce advanced foreign technology, but the expenditure on digestion and absorption of imported technology was only 860 million yuan. It is only equivalent to 4.9% of the introduction fee. In recent years, although the National Development and Reform Commission and other departments have stipulated that the localization rate of some production lines should reach 50%-70% when they are introduced, many enterprises mainly concentrate this proportion of localized equipment on the low-end technology, and still form in key parts. Not their own ability to innovate. The facts show that the more foreign technology that is blocked against China, the more it can master the core technology of independent intellectual property rights after independent innovation; the more foreign technology is repeatedly promoted to China, the country is keen to repeat introduction, the more it is not independent Innovation capacity. In recent years, overseas metallurgical enterprises have tightened their technology to China, and it has made independent innovation more difficult.
The main form of domestic metallurgical engineering technology introduction and localization
The main forms of domestic metallurgical engineering technology introduction and localization are as follows: First, foreign advanced steel plants are used as models to fully introduce complete sets of advanced equipment and production technology; second, complete sets of equipment are introduced according to the project, and basically complete sets of equipment are supplied by foreign manufacturers; It is introduced according to the project, and is responsible for the technical support of foreign companies, and provides equipment design, and is divided and cooperated at home and abroad. Fourth, the project is under the responsibility of the domestic unit technology, introduced on demand, and other parts are designed and manufactured domestically; fifth, the project is contracted by the domestic general contractor. Supply, only the introduction of individual equipment; Sixth is the introduction of foreign technology, the project is all designed and manufactured by the country; Seven is the process and machinery and equipment are responsible for the domestic technology, the introduction of electrical and instrument control equipment.
It can be seen that after China's reform and opening up, it has experienced the development process of metallurgical equipment from introduction to localization, but the key technologies and equipment are still in the hands of foreign manufacturers.
Domestic metallurgical engineering design development trend
The domestic metallurgical engineering design system was introduced by the former Soviet Union in the 1950s, and the design method of the former Soviet Union was basically used for a long time. After the 1980s, with the design and construction of Baosteel Engineering, domestic metallurgical engineering design has introduced Japanese and European design methods, but it is still a traditional "static-segmentation" design method, that is, static semi-empirical and semi-theoretical Design method.
The development trend of domestic metallurgical engineering design is as follows:
1) Domestic metallurgical engineering and technology enterprises are adjusting their survival strategies, advocating an international survival model, implementing a “going out” strategy, actively facing competition and expanding living space.
2) Domestic metallurgical engineering technology enterprises such as China Metallurgical Jingcheng Engineering Technology Co., Ltd., China Metallurgical Technology Co., Ltd. and China Metallurgical Southern Technology Co., Ltd., etc., have set up technology centers, pilot bases, holding manufacturing plants, and have core designs. Technology + core manufacturing technology to achieve product functional changes, and strive to become an international engineering company.
3) Typical examples of domestic metallurgical engineering design. Recently, many independent breakthroughs have been made in the independent research and development of domestic metallurgical equipment. For example, Shougang and the two-way cooperation successfully developed the 3500mm plate mill, Baosteel and Xi'an Heavy Machinery Research Institute jointly developed the molten steel RH vacuum refining equipment, and Beijing Steel Research Institute. The institute and Yanshan University jointly developed a 10,000-ton oil extruder for the successful metallurgical industry in cooperation with the Xi'an Heavy Machinery Research Institute and a private enterprise in Shandong.
4) Major developments in domestic metallurgical engineering design. In the 21st century, domestic metallurgists founded metallurgical process engineering, combined with a new generation of steel manufacturing process system research, Shougang Jingtang company project design and construction, proposed a new generation of metallurgical engineering design theory based on dynamic-accurate design system and method. At present, metallurgical engineering design has gradually formed a complete theoretical system of engineering disciplines based on metallurgical process engineering, metallurgical process integration theory and method, engineering philosophy and engineering system theory.
Domestic metallurgical engineering design
Major problems and constraints
Through the comparative analysis of the status quo and development trend of metallurgical engineering design at home and abroad, we can see that the main problems and constraints of domestic metallurgical engineering design have the following six aspects:
1) From the perspective of operational mode, China's situation is that design and manufacturing are separated, process and equipment are separated, and complete set design capability is poor, so joint research and development is needed. The situation abroad is the integration of design and manufacturing, but with the shift of manufacturing to low-cost regions, there is also a trend of manufacturing subcontracting and localized production.
2) From the perspective of mechanical manufacturing, China's manufacturing costs are low, but there is still a gap in processing accuracy. Key components such as bearings are still imported; foreign manufacturing costs are high, and there is a tendency to transfer and subcontract to China.
3) In terms of electrical, the quality of electrical components produced in China is poor. Because of the good quality of foreign electrical components, key components such as thickness gauges still rely on imports.
4) In terms of hydraulic pressure, due to the good quality of foreign hydraulic components, key components such as seals are highly dependent on imports.
5) In terms of control software, although the domestic metallurgical engineering company is not poor in programming ability, the understanding of the operating process is not deep, and the software and hardware are easily disconnected; while the foreign understanding of the operating process is deep, and the combination of software and hardware is tight.
6) The domestic steel industry has been developed in an extensive and simple way for a long time. The domestic metallurgical engineering design has continued the original Soviet design concept and design mode, that is, the static estimation of the capabilities of different process equipment, plus the simple connection between the processes, Form a stacked, extensive production process. It is characterized by only starting from the local part of the process (ie, staying within the scope of the process to propose static requirements, rarely suggesting dynamic, orderly, coordinated and integrated operation requirements between the upstream and downstream processes), respectively, leaving different The affluence ability; the wealth factor of each process equipment capability varies with the subjective needs of the designer (or different process users), and the connection between processes is often only a static connection of the pile, lacking the calculation of dynamic operation, The production process and process equipment of the steel plant constructed by this design method often have the ability to match the front and rear processes in the actual operation process, the functions are not coordinated, and the information is difficult to be smooth and controllable. Therefore, it is difficult for the operating efficiency, product quality and investment efficiency of the steel plant to be truly optimized. Moreover, it is often the beginning of the technological transformation when the process is completed.
Domestic metallurgical engineering company
Measures and methods to improve engineering design capabilities
In view of the main problems and constraints of domestic metallurgical engineering design, the main measures and methods that domestic metallurgical engineering companies should adopt to improve engineering design capabilities are as follows:
1) Advocating an internationalized survival model, taking the internationalization as the benchmark from the corporate strategy to the operation, not only to limit the eyes to the domestic, but to view and analyze the enterprise from an international perspective in the context of economic globalization. The problems in operation, the international business model, the integration of international engineering technology, improve management efficiency, establish an international project management model that meets the requirements of engineering projects, and actively expand from the regional market to the international market.
2) From the concept, management and technology to the international trend in an all-round way, to survive and develop in an international way.
3) From the research, design, manufacturing, electrical, automation and other aspects, build an international engineering technology company in all directions, and take the road of core design technology + core manufacturing technology.
4) In terms of the external environment of the enterprise, it is necessary to establish a metallurgical engineering design technology innovation system that is government-led, market-oriented, enterprise-oriented and organically combined with “production, learning, research and use”, and rationalizes universities and research institutes in China. The position and mutual relationship of enterprises in metallurgical engineering design, exert their respective strengths, and form the overall advantages of China's metallurgical engineering design technology innovation.
5) Based on metallurgical process engineering, dynamic-accurate design theory and method, construct a complete system of metallurgical engineering design innovation concepts, theories and design methods in China; attach importance to top-level design and demand guidance, and combine domestic new or rebuilt metallurgical engineering construction projects. With the implementation of metallurgical engineering design innovation concept, theory and design method, engineering technology integration innovation as the carrier, combined with the dynamic operation of metallurgical production process, improve the new generation of steel manufacturing process, comprehensively enhance China's metallurgical engineering design innovation ability, and drive China's steel manufacturing process To achieve a comprehensive transformation, transform the economic growth mode of China's iron and steel enterprises, and improve the market competitiveness and sustainable development capability of China's steel enterprises.
In summary, the following conclusions are drawn:
1) Domestic metallurgical engineering companies must advocate an internationalized survival model, and conform to the trend of internationalization in terms of concept, management and technology, and seek survival and development in an international way;
2) Domestic metallurgical engineering companies must actively realize the transformation of product functional design, take the road of core design technology and core manufacturing technology, and have the functions of product functional realization, in order to truly compete with foreign metallurgical engineering companies.
3) Based on the metallurgical process engineering, dynamic and precise design theory and method, build a complete system of China's metallurgical engineering design innovation concept, theory and design method, and combine the domestic new or rebuilt metallurgical engineering construction project to implement the metallurgical engineering design innovation concept. , theory and design method Engineering technology integration innovation as a carrier, drive China's steel manufacturing process to achieve a comprehensive transformation, transform the economic growth mode of steel enterprises, improve the market competitiveness and sustainable development of steel enterprises.
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